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农村小型水利设施管理优化问题研究-以广西临桂区为例(MPA硕士)

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农村小型水利设施管理优化问题研究-以广西临桂区为例(MPA硕士)(论文38000字)
摘 要
水是生命之源、生产之要、生态之基。我国自古以来都是一个农业大国,农业的发展和繁荣离不开农村水利设施的健全。对农村小型水利设施的健全不仅要重视建设工作,更加要重视建后的管理维护工作,这关系着水利设施工作效率的发挥,是提高农业生产力,改善农民生活质量的重要环节。
农村小型水利设施分为多个领域,包括水资源、土壤、农业等,按照其规模大小,通常将灌溉面积小于1万亩、除涝面积小于3万亩、库容小于10万立方米、渠道流量小于1立方米/每秒的农村水利设施划分为小型农村水利设施的范畴。农村小型水利设施的管理主要是指乡村灌溉体制,也就是从事灌溉管理的各级灌区管理单位及其相互关系的总称。农村小型水利设施管理作为一种共同表述,指的是人们对水利设施的建设、供给方式、经营机制、占有、使用、维护决策机制等一系列基本内容,根据基本内容中的一项或多项可将其划分成不同类型的管理模式。我国农村小型水利设施主要实行集权管理模式,然而,集权管理模式具有很多缺点,当前农村小型水利设施建设不完善,水资源紧缺、水资源配置不均、水权设置不明确等问题日益严重,管理优化模式尚未有效建立,水资源供需矛盾越来越成为制约农业生产、农民增收的关键。因此农村小型水利设施必须推行管理优化。农村小型水利设施进行管理优化,可以优化农村水利设施规划布局,以最优化、最节省、最经济的方式,建设发挥同等效益,甚至发挥更大规模效益的农村小型水利设施,能够促进地方经济的发展。广西临桂区的农村小型水利工程,基本归乡镇政府所有并进行管理、维修和维护,具体的管理单位是各乡镇政府下属的水利站。日常运行管理则委托工程所受益的村委进行管理。广西临桂区农村小型水利工程大多已经运行多年,水利设施老化严重,没有完善的工程管理体制与运行机制,工程实行谁建谁管理的办法,建成后均由当地村民自行管理,没有征收水费,每当用水时都是村民自行自觉筹集资金。当前,广西临桂区农村小型水利设施依然沿用过去的集体组织建设、集体负责管理的模式,农村小型水利设施失管现象较为严重。经研究发现,广西临桂区农村小型水利设施仍普遍存在河道淤积、堤防坍塌、泵站老化、管理用房缺少、渠道老化渗漏等问题,政府管理缺位。并且临桂区的农户在前期设计,施工建设和后期运行管理中都过度依赖当地的政府,这也是导致当地农村小型水利设施长期处于落后局面的一个很严重的原因。广西临桂区目前农村小型水利设施的管理基本上都是由政府部门统一完成的。农民参与度低,且农民的参与意识淡薄,广西临桂区在管理机制上缺乏将第三方引入。同时当前广西临桂区在农村小型水利设施管理过程中,经常存在着权责不明的问题,并且广西临桂区农村小型水利设施缺乏专门的养护人员进行管养。通过本文的研究,笔者认为想要构建和完善农村小型水利设施管理优化模式,政府要为农村小型水利设施的管理创造基础条件,在布局水利建设之初应着眼全县,结合地区实际情况,做好水利基础设施建设规划,避免因利益纠纷影响建后管理工作,确保水利基础设施效益正常发挥。提高农民管理能力,要加快转变农民对农村小型水利设施的认识,提高农民对农村小型水利设施功能的认识,形成对农村小型水利设施自觉维护和管理的意识,加大对农村基础教育的力度,加强人员培训,鼓励农民参与。引入第三方机构参与管理,可以探索政府购买服务的做法,在确保工程安全、公共属性和生态保护的前提下,鼓励企业、社会组织、个人竞争参与农田水利工程管护,实现农田水利设施“产权到位、权责明确、经费保障、管用得当、持续发展”的目标。探索长效监管机制,要明确管理主体,强化管理主体的责任意识,保障管理工作实效,完善分级管理模式。在管理模式上除了采用县级直管、镇政府和镇直水利部门管理、村集体管理、民间集体管理和村民自管模式以外,要积极推行农村水利协会制度,在全县组建以用水农户为主体的农村水利协会,并制定科学可行的协会管理制度,保障管理人员经费,明确管理工作职责,实现农村小型水利设施农户自主管理模式。加强管理人员素质,有针对性的提高管理人员的专业素质。构建以收益群众为主体的管理体制。这对广西临桂区今后很长一段时间内的农村小型水利设施的管理具有十分重要的指导作用。

关键词:临桂区;农村小型水利设施;管理模式;问题;优化
 
Abstract
Water is the source of life, production, ecological basis. Since ancient times, China is a big agricultural country, the development and prosperity of agriculture can not be separated from the rural water conservancy facilities. The improvement of rural small water conservancy facilities should not only pay attention to the construction work, pay more attention to the management and maintenance work, which is related to the efficiency of the work of water conservancy facilities, and is an important link to improve the agricultural productivity and improve the quality of life of farmers.
Rural small water conservancy facilities is divided into a number of areas, including water resources, soil, agriculture etc., according to their size, usually irrigation area of less than 1 million mu, waterlogging area of less than 3 million acres, storage capacity is less than 10 million cubic meters, channel flow, less than 1 cubic meters / per second of rural water conservancy design application is divided into the category of small water conservancy facilities in rural areas. The management of small irrigation and water conservancy facilities in rural areas is mainly refers to the rural irrigation system, which is engaged in the management of irrigation management at all levels of irrigation management units and their mutual relations. The management of small water conservancy facilities in rural areas is a kind of common expression, which refers to a series of basic contents, such as the construction of water conservancy facilities, supply mode, operation mechanism, possession, use, maintenance decision-making mechanism, etc., according to the basic content of one or more can be divided into different types of management mode. The centralized management mode of small water conservancy facilities in China, however, has many shortcomings, the current rural small water conservancy facilities construction is not perfect, water shortage, water resource allocation, water rights is not clear and so on. Therefore, the rural small water conservancy facilities must be carried out to optimize the management. The optimization management of the rural small water conservancy facilities can optimize the layout of rural water conservancy facilities in order to optimize, save, and the most economical way. The small water conservancy project in Lingui District of Guangxi, which is owned by the township government, is managed, maintained and maintained, and the specific management unit is the water conservancy station under the township government. Daily operation and management of the village committee for the benefit of the project management. Lingui Guangxi District Rural small water conservancy projects have been running for many years, the aging of water conservancy facilities, no perfect project management system and operation mechanism, the implementation of the project who built the way, after the completion of the local villagers themselves management, no water, when the water is the villagers themselves consciously raise funds. At present, the rural small water conservancy facilities in Lingui District of Guangxi are still in use in the past. The study found that the Lingui Guangxi District Rural small water conservancy facilities are still widespread in the river deposition, the collapse of the embankment, the pump station aging, management of the housing shortage, the channel aging leakage and other issues, the absence of government management. And the farmers in Lingui District in the early design, construction and operation of the late operation management are over reliance on local government, which is also a very serious cause of the local rural small water conservancy facilities in a long time in a backward situation. At present, the management of small water conservancy facilities in Lingui District of Guangxi is basically completed by the government departments. Farmers' participation is low, and the farmers' participation consciousness is weak, the lack of the third party in the management mechanism of Lingui Guangxi district. At the same time, the current Lingui Guangxi District in the management of small water conservancy facilities, there is often a problem, and the lack of specialized maintenance personnel in rural small water conservancy facilities in Lingui District of Guangxi. Through the study of this paper, the author thinks that want to build and improve the rural small water conservancy facilities optimization management mode, the government should create the basic conditions for the management of rural small water conservancy facilities, at the beginning of the layout of water conservancy construction should focus on the county, combined with the actual situation in the region, make water conservancy infrastructure construction plan, avoid because of conflicts of interest affect construction management work, to ensure that the benefits of water conservancy infrastructure normal play. Improve the management ability of farmers, to speed up the transformation of farmers to rural small water conservancy facilities, improve farmers' understanding of the function of rural small water conservancy facilities, the formation of small water conservancy facilities in rural areas, the awareness of the consciousness, increase the intensity of rural basic education, strengthen personnel training, encourage farmers to participate. Introducing third party agencies to participate in the management, to explore the practice of government purchase service, under the premise of ensure the safety of the project, public property and ecological protection, enterprises, social organizations and individuals to competition are encouraged to participate in the management and protection of farmland and water conservancy engineering, irrigation and water conservancy facilities property, clear responsibilities, funding and works properly and sustainable development ". Explore the long-term supervision mechanism, to clear the main body of management, strengthen the management of the main responsibility consciousness, to ensure the effectiveness of management work, improve the classification management model. On the management mode in addition to the county straight, town government and town water sector management, management of village collective, folk collective management and villagers self - management mode outside, to actively promote the rural water conservancy association system, in the county set up to water of farmers as the main body of Rural Water Conservancy Association, and formulate scientific and feasible association management system, guarantee funds for the management personnel, clear management responsibilities, independent management mode of rural small water conservancy facilities farmers. To strengthen the quality of management personnel, and to improve the professional quality of management personnel. Building the management system of the masses as the main body. This has a very important guiding role in the management of rural small water conservancy facilities in Lingui Guangxi area for a long time.
Key words: water conservancy facilities, optimization, management mode, rural, small

目 录
摘 要    I
Abstract    III
一、导论    1
(一)选题缘由    1
(二)研究的意义    1
(三)国内外研究现状    2
1.国外研究现状    2
2.国内研究现状    3
(四)研究方法    4
1.文献研究方法    4
2.历史分析法    4
3.调查研究方法    4
(五)创新点    4
二、农村小型水利设施管理优化的必要性    5
(一)核心概念界定    5
1.农村水利设施    5
2.农村小型水利设施    5
3.农村小型水利设施管理    5
4.农村小型水利设施管理优化的内涵    7
(二)农村小型水利设施管理优化的理论依据    7
1.公共产品理论    7
2.“多中心治理”理论    8
3.参与式发展理论    9
(三)农村小型水利设施管理优化的现实必要性    10
1.现有管理模式存在弊端    10
2.优化水资源配置的需要    10
3.改善农业生产条件的需要    10
4.促进地方经济持续发展的需要    11
三、广西临桂区农村小型水利设施管理的现状分析    12
(一)广西临桂区农村小型水利设施管理概况    12
1.临桂区地理及农村小型水利设施情况    12
2.临桂区现有农村小型水利设施管理现状    12
(二)广西临桂区农村小型水利设施管理存在的问题    13
1.政府管理缺位    13
2.村集体自身管理能力有限    14
4.缺乏第三方机构引入机制    15
3.水利建设权责不明    16
(三)广西临桂区农村小型水利设施管理存在问题的原因分析    17
1.政府角度    17
2.农民自身角度    19
3.市场需求角度    20
四、国外创新农村小型水利设施管理模式的探索经验及其启示    21
(一)国外的经验    21
1.各级政府分级管理    21
2.吸收农民参与管理    22
3.加强水利制度建设    22
(二)启示    23
1.深化水利机构管理体制改革    23
2.整合多方资源实行管理优化    23
3.加大农村小型水利设施管理人财投入    24
4.借鉴国外经验完善水利法律体系    24
五、农村小型水利设施管理优化的对策建议    25
(一)构建以受益群众为主的管理体制    25
1.鼓励群众成立用水户协会    25
2.构建合理的水价制定机制    25
(二)政府要为农村小型水利设施的管理创造基础条件    26
1.科学规划农村水利建设    26
2.同步推进建设与管理    27
3.保障管理工作经费    27
(三)提高农民管理能力    28
1.提高农民对农村小型水利设施的认识    28
2.鼓励农民参与    28
3.加强管理人员素质    28
(四)引入第三方机构参与管理    29
(五)探索长效监管机制    29
六、结语    31
(一)研究结论    31
(二)不足之处    31
参考文献    33
致 谢    35